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Xjenza Online Vol. 8 Iss. 1
Xjenza Online Vol. 8 Iss. 1 ISSUE: Xjenza Online Vol. 8 Iss. 1



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Editorial
A Little Piece of Normality

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Article
Complex factors in preconditioning – a microarray gene expression perspective
Kevin SchembriJoseph Galea, Godfrey Grech, Christian Saliba, Christian Scerri
Pages: 2 - 15
Abstract | View full article | PDF
Abstract:
Preconditioning is complex, strong, evolutionary conserved cellular survival mechanism that is exhibited by different species as well as in different organs. A focused approach on microarray evaluation of preconditioning will be used to highlight the lack of clarity in investigating this complex phenomenon, exacerbated by the absence of a standardised terminology. This paper is an extensive review of the scientific literature on the investigation of preconditioning by means of a microarray approach. It dissects the design of the experiments used to investigate such phenomenon and classifies the complex factors in investigating preconditioning. It presents an attention to detail to the lexicon with a suggested classification and terminology that describes preconditioning that may help stratify and clarify research in this field.

Doi: 10.7423/XJENZA.2020.1.01
Article
Predictors of Employment Outcomes among Filipino Workers in Malta
Manwel DebonoMario thomas Vassallo
Pages: 16 - 31
Abstract | View full article | PDF
Abstract:
The work-related experiences of migrants vary significantly across groups and are affected by the interaction of the migrants’ characteristics with those of the host country. This study investigates the influence of a number of personal factors on the work-related outcomes of Filipino migrants in Malta. Data about seven personal characteristics and nine work-related outcomes was gathered from a sample of 317 Filipino workers and analyzed through inferential statistics. Male and female respondents experience similar work outcomes, apart from access to training which is higher among males. Older workers have better work outcomes than younger ones. They are treated more fairly, face less discrimination, take less sick leave and are less likely to exhibit presenteeism. Knowledge of local employment laws is related to higher levels of job satisfaction, fair treatment, and ability to influence decisions at work. Counter intuitively, level of education is positively related to perceived discrimination. Besides, having a high skilled job and working in the public sector are related to greater health and safety risks and more sick leave. These unexpected results may be explained through the migrants’ higher expectations and greater awareness and sensitivity towards working conditions. This study confirms the utility of a nuanced approach when examining the working conditions of Filipino migrants and highlights the predictive ability of age, skills level of job, sector of employment and knowledge of local employment laws.

Doi: 10.7423/XJENZA.2020.1.02
Article
The Correlation Between the Level of Knowledge in Reading Nutritional Labels and Oral Health
Cuschieri LauraMaria roxana Visan, Anne-marie Agius, Gabriella Gatt, Nikolai Attard
Pages: 32 - 38
Abstract | View full article | PDF
Abstract:
Abstract and Objectives: To establish whether the level of knowledge in reading nutritional labels in the Maltese population is correlated to their oral health status. Materials and Methods: Participants were recruited from dental screenings on the Mobile Dental Unit (MDU) or at the University of Malta dental teaching clinics. A questionnaire was used to collect general information, participants’ awareness of WHO sugar guidelines, food preferences, and their level of knowledge in reading nutrition labels. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) Index and erosion scores were also recorded. Results: A total of 122 random subjects participated in this research project, of which 62.3% were females. 17.2% of the total sample were aware of the WHO guidelines regarding sugar intake. 41.7% of people showed a good level of knowledge in reading nutrition labels. Mean DMFT scores and care index were found to be 10.5 ± 7.2 and 37.2 ± 30.3% respectively. Furthermore, the BEWE index was found to be 1.2 ± 3.3%. Higher educational levels were associated with healthier diets. Within the 35-65 years group, DMFT was significantly lower if the respondent had the ability to read labels. Conclusion: The study showed that there is a low awareness of WHO daily sugar intake guidelines and a moderate understanding of nutrition labels. Age-related trends, educational background, and knowledge in reading and correctly understanding food nutritional labels were related to better oral health.

Doi: 10.7423/XJENZA.2020.1.03
Article
Quality of communication between dentists and dental laboratory technicians in Malta
Liam AzzopardiEmad Eddin Alzoubi, Mario Zarb
Pages: 39 - 46
Abstract | View full article | PDF
Abstract:
Abstract: Purpose. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of communication between the dental clinic and dental laboratory from a dental laboratory technicians’ point of view and to offer means for improving communication between these two workplaces. Methods and Materials. This pilot study was carried out on 38 dental laboratory technicians comprising of 14 dental laboratory technicians from the Dental Laboratory –Dental Department, Mater Dei Hospital along with 24 dental laboratory technicians from private dental laboratories spread across the Maltese Islands. The study used binomial tests as the form for inferential analysis of results with the reference level of significance set up to 5%( = 0:05) whereby a percentage of 75% was viewed as being significantly disparate from p = 50% with 84.6% of statistical power, assuming a 95% level of confidence. The collection of data was taken through the use of a questionnaire issued on a one-time basis. Results. The study reported 65.6% of dental technicians received impressions in a non-disinfected state (p = 0:110). 40.6% of dental technicians found the written dental clinic prescription card instructions as ‘Good’ (p = 0:001**) whilst 46.9% ‘Occasionally’ interact with their dental patients (p = 0:215). 31.3% of dental technicians view themselves as ‘Important-Very important’ (p = 0:302). The majority of dental technicians are comfortable discussing prosthesis design with dentists (87.5%) (p<= 0:001***). Conclusion. Communication between the dental clinic and dental laboratory was found to possess several strengths and weaknesses in the eyes of Maltese dental technicians. There is room for improvement in communication between these two dental workplaces.

Doi: 10.7423/XJENZA.2020.1.04