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Xjenza Online Vol. 9 Iss. 1
Xjenza Online Vol. 9 Iss. 1 ISSUE: Xjenza Online Vol. 9 Iss. 1



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Editorial
Return to Normality

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Article
Influence of Desalination Plant Effluent on Shore Macroinvertebrate Assemblages
Rebecca-Maria Scerri, Joseph Borg
Pages: 2 - 13
Abstract | View full article | PDF
Abstract:
The present study was aimed to establish whether effluent from two desalination plants at different locations in Malta has an influence on biological attributes of rocky shore assemblages, and if so to determine the spatial extent of such influence, and whether the magnitude and extent of effects differs between the two plants. Samples of biota were collected from the Lower Mediolittoral Zone (LMZ) and Upper Mediolittoral Zone (UMZ) using a 20 x 20 cm quadrat, and from the Supralittoral Zone (SZ) using a 30 x 30 cm quadrat, at distances of 0 m, 15 m, 30 m, 80 m and 150 m away from the effluent outfall on either side of it. The collected biota was then sorted and identified in the laboratory. The results indicated that the influence of the desalination effluent on shore macroinvertebrate assemblages was localized at both study localities. Within the LMZ and UMZ, the influence was most evident 15 m away from the outfall, decreased beyond 30 m and was almost negligible 150 m away. In the case of the SZ, the influence was evident in the immediate vicinity of the outfall. Differences in the magnitude of the effect of effluent between the two study localities were attributed to the exposure of the shore to different flow regimes of the effluent discharge.

Doi: 10.7423/XJENZA.2021.1.01
Article
Exposition of the GRAS Method
Adrian Theuma, Kevin Abela
Pages: 14 - 23
Abstract | View full article | PDF
Abstract:
The goal of this study is to provide a detailed insight on the GRAS method put forward by Junius and Oosterhaven (2003) and its subsequent changes proposed by Lenzen et al. (2007) and Temurshoev et al. (2013). Furthermore, the GRAS algorithm provided by Temurshoev et al. (2013) will be applied on the 2010 Macro SAM for Malta. The totals of the Rest of World account are revised subject to ocial publicly available data (Eurostat, 2020). The newly generated Macro SAM will include updated Rest of World totals such that it represents more accurately the current account of the Maltese economy. Although the Rest of World totals of the newly balanced Macro SAM will conform to the latest Balance of Payments statistical developments, the generated SAM elements may not adhere to publicly available data since additional mathematical assumptions were imposed. However, this comprehensive economy-wide data framework can be utilised by researchers, students and statisticians who are interested in the Macro SAM with an updated Rest of World account and are not a ected by the imposition of additional mathematical assumptions.

Doi: 10.7423/XJENZA.2021.1.02
Article
Insurance, Risk Management and Youth Football Academies: A Maltese Case-Study
Brandon Saliba, Dominic Cortis, Omar Madhloom
Pages: 24 - 36
Abstract | View full article | PDF
Abstract:
Our central thesis is whether Risk Management can be applied as part of a best practice management system throughout sport organizations. Our literature review reveals that the key risks faced by youth soccer and sports training in general, and the causes of legal liability. We analyse the results of an empirical study conducted across all 47 youth academies in Malta for the purpose of identifying the main risks faced. Interviews were also conducted with the official national sports organisation and an insurance broker who introduced the first (and only) such insurance policy targeted for youth soccer academies in Malta. Our findings indicate that injuries, liability risk and inadequate facilities are the key hazards of concern for youth academies. A framework is suggested to avoid and minimise the risks identified in our study. A key measure that minimizes most risks is coaches’ continuous professional development. In addition, insurance policies ought to offer the ability to transfer risk.

Doi: 10.7423/XJENZA.2021.1.03