Xjenza Online Vol. 9 Iss. 1



Xjenza Online Vol. 9 Iss. 1 ISSUE: Xjenza Online Vol. 9 Iss. 1


Return to Normality

Influence of Desalination Plant Effluent on Shore Macroinvertebrate Assemblages
Rebecca-Maria Scerri, Joseph Borg
Pages: 2 - 13
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The present study was aimed to establish whether effluent from two desalination plants at different locations in Malta has an influence on biological attributes of rocky shore assemblages, and if so to determine the spatial extent of such influence, and whether the magnitude and extent of effects differs between the two plants. Samples of biota were collected from the Lower Mediolittoral Zone (LMZ) and Upper Mediolittoral Zone (UMZ) using a 20 x 20 cm quadrat, and from the Supralittoral Zone (SZ) using a 30 x 30 cm quadrat, at distances of 0 m, 15 m, 30 m, 80 m and 150 m away from the effluent outfall on either side of it. The collected biota was then sorted and identified in the laboratory. The results indicated that the influence of the desalination effluent on shore macroinvertebrate assemblages was localized at both study localities. Within the LMZ and UMZ, the influence was most evident 15 m away from the outfall, decreased beyond 30 m and was almost negligible 150 m away. In the case of the SZ, the influence was evident in the immediate vicinity of the outfall. Differences in the magnitude of the effect of effluent between the two study localities were attributed to the exposure of the shore to different flow regimes of the effluent discharge.

Doi: 10.7423/XJENZA.2021.1.01
Exposition of the GRAS Method
Adrian Theuma, Kevin Abela
Pages: 14 - 23
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The goal of this study is to provide a detailed
insight on the GRAS method put forward by Junius
and Oosterhaven (2003) and its subsequent changes
proposed by Lenzen et al. (2007) and Temurshoev et al.
(2013). Furthermore, the GRAS algorithm provided by
Temurshoev et al. (2013) will be applied on the 2010
Macro SAM for Malta. The totals of the Rest of World
account are revised subject to ocial publicly available
data (Eurostat, 2020). The newly generated Macro
SAM will include updated Rest of World totals such
that it represents more accurately the current account
of the Maltese economy. Although the Rest of World
totals of the newly balanced Macro SAM will conform
to the latest Balance of Payments statistical developments,
the generated SAM elements may not adhere
to publicly available data since additional mathematical
assumptions were imposed. However, this comprehensive
economy-wide data framework can be utilised
by researchers, students and statisticians who are interested
in the Macro SAM with an updated Rest of World
account and are not a ected by the imposition of additional
mathematical assumptions.

Doi: 10.7423/XJENZA.2021.1.02
Insurance, Risk Management and Youth Football Academies: A Maltese Case-Study
Brandon Saliba, Dominic Cortis, Omar Madhloom
Pages: 24 - 36
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Our central thesis is whether Risk Management can be applied as part of a best practice management system throughout sport organizations. Our literature review reveals that the key risks faced by youth soccer and sports training in general, and the causes of legal liability. We analyse the results of an empirical study conducted across all 47 youth academies in Malta for the purpose of identifying the main risks faced. Interviews were also conducted with the official national sports organisation and an insurance broker who introduced the first (and only) such insurance policy targeted for youth soccer academies in Malta. Our findings indicate that injuries, liability risk and inadequate facilities are the key hazards of concern for youth academies. A framework is suggested to avoid and minimise the risks identified in our study. A key measure that minimizes most risks is coaches’ continuous professional development. In addition, insurance policies ought to offer the ability to transfer risk.

Doi: 10.7423/XJENZA.2021.1.03