Patient-reported Subjective Outcomes on Tooth Whitening Procedures

Authors: Ikechi McBerry, Gabriella Gatt, Emad Eddin Alzoubi, Nikolai Attard

Corresponding: Emad Eddin Alzoubi (

Keywords: Tooth whitening, Patient-reported outcomes, Oral health

Doi: 10.7423/XJENZA.2021.2.01

Introduction: Tooth whitening procedures have gained popularity. Whilst it is important to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of these bleaching products, the patients’ opinion on their clinical experience should be investigated.
Aims and Objective: This second article aims to report on the participants’ self-reported subjective evaluation of their tooth whitening experience.
Material and Methods:
127 participants were invited to join the study and 77 were enrolled in the study according to the selection criteria. They were randomly divided into 8 groups, each group receiving a different tooth-bleaching product. Clinical data collection was performed at 4 different time points. Patients’ subjective outcomes were measured before and at the end of the observation period with pre-piloted questionnaires.
Results: Significant changes between products, from pre-treatment (T0) to 1-month after treatment (T3), were observed, with two products clinically underperforming(p< 0.05). Eighty-two percent of participants reported that they would undergo another
whitening procedure, whilst 42.5% indicated that tooth whitening was a motivational factor for them to improve and maintain their oral health status. Patient-reported sensitivity was significantly highest for the Ultradedent Opalescence PF HK group (P ⩽ 0.001). Bi- and multi-variate analyses of patients’ self-reported levels of satisfaction indicated that patients were able to discern clinical changes. They reported the highest satisfaction rates for Philips Zoom (P ⩽ 0.001) and dissatisfactions with two of the bleaching products.
Conclusions: Patients detected clinical changes and their satisfaction was overall very positive, although some products performed below expectations. Tooth whitening procedures appeared to be a motivational tool.

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